The island of Cyprus was effectively partitioned with the northern third inhabited by Turkish Cypriots and the southern two-thirds by Greek Cypriots.
A "Green Line" - dividing the two parts from Morphou through Nicosia to Famagusta - is patrolled by United Nations troops.
In 1983 the Turkish-held area declared itself the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Turkey recognises only the Turkish Cypriot authorities and keeps around 30,000 troops in the north of the island of Cyprus.
The prospect of EU expansion concentrated Cypriot minds in the search for a settlement. UN-sponsored negotiations continued throughout 2002 and a peace plan was tabled. Soon afterwards the EU invited Cyprus to become a member.
But hopes that the island of Cyprus could join united were dashed when leaders of the Turkish and Greek communities failed to agree to the UN plan by the March 2003 deadline.
In the months that followed travel restrictions in Cyprus were eased, enabling people to cross the border for the first time in nearly 30 years, raising hopes that progress might be on the way.
As EU entry approached, a revised UN reunification plan for Cyprus was put to both communities in twin referendums in April 2004.
The plan was endorsed by Turkish Cypriots, although not by their then leader Rauf Denktash, but overwhelmingly rejected by Greek Cypriots. Because both sides had to approve the proposals, the island of Cyprus remained divided as it joined the EU in May. EU laws and benefits apply only to the Greek Cypriot community.
Over two years later, hope of progress in the search for a settlement began to be rekindled at UN-sponsored talks between Cypriot President Tassos Papadopolous and Turkish Cypriot leader Mehmet Ali Talat. The two agreed on a series of confidence-building measures and contacts between the communities.
Turkey has a particular interest in seeing the situation resolved as its own EU aspirations are linked to the island's future.
- Famagusta, Greek: Αμμόχωστος (Ammochostos), Turkish: Gazimağusa (former Turkish: Mağusa)
- Kyrenia, Greek: Κερύνεια (Keryneia), Turkish: Girne
- Limassol, Greek: Λεμεσός (Lemesos), Turkish: Limasol, Leymosun
- Larnaca, Greek: Λάρνακα (Larnaka), Other names: Kart Hadasht, Kition (ancient). Skala (Turkish: İskele) is also used colloquially.
- Nicosia, Greek: Λευκωσία (Lefkosia), Turkish: Lefkoşa
- Paphos, Greek: Πάφος (Pafos), Turkish: Baf/Kasaba. Older Greek name: Ktima
Minor towns and villages
- Achna, Greek: 'Αχνα, Turkish: Duzce/Ahna
- Aglantzia, Greek: Αγλαντζιά
- Akanthou, Greek: Ακανθού, Turkish: Tatlisu
- Akrotiri Greek: Ακρωτήρι, Turkish: Agrotur
- Apostolos Andreas, Greek: Απόστολος Ανδρέας
- Asinou, Greek: Ασίνου
- Askas, Greek: Ασκάς
- Ayia Napa, Greek: Αγία Νάπα, Turkish: Aya Napa
- Ayia Trias, Greek: Αγία Τριάς, Turkish: Sipahi
- Bellapais, Greek: Mpellapaïs, Turkish: Bellabayıs
- Buffavento, Greek: Μπουφαβέντο
- Dali, Greek:Δαλι
- Dhekelia, Greek: Δεκέλεια, Turkish: Dikelya
- Gerolakkos, Greek: Γερόλακκος, Turkish: Alaykoy
- Gialousa, Greek: Γιαλούσα, Turkish: Yeni Erenköy / Maltepe
- Giolou, Greek: Γιoλού
- Idalium, Greek: Ιδάλιον
- Kissonerga, Greek: Κισσόνεργα
- Kiti, Greek: Κίτι
- Kokkina, Turkish: Erenköy
- Kormakitis, Greek: Κορμακίτης, Turkish: Korucan
- Kornokipos, Turkish: Gornec
- Kouklia, Greek: Κούκλια
- Kythrea, Greek: Κυθρέα, Turkish: Degirmenlik
- Lagoudera, Greek: Λαγουδερά
- Lambousa, Greek: Λαμπούσα
- Lapithos, Greek: Λάπηθος, Turkish: Lapta
- Latsia, Greek: Λατσια, Turkish: Laçça/Laçia
- Lefka, Greek: Λεύκα, Turkish: Lefke
- Lefkonoiko, Greek: Λευκόνοικο, Turkish: Geçitkale
- Leonarisso, Greek: Λεονάρισσο, Turkish: Ziyamet
- Louroujina, Greek: Λουρουτζίνα, Turkish:Akıncılar
- Limnitis, Greek: Λιμνίτης, Turkish: Yeşilirmak/Limnidi
- Lythrangomi, Greek: Λυθράγκωμη, Turkish: Boltasli
- Mia Milia, Greek: Μιά Μηλιά, Turkish: Haspolat
- Miliou, Greek: Μιλιου
- Morphou, Greek: Μόρφου (Morfu), Turkish: Güzelyurt (Omorfo), Morfou
- Omorfita,Greek: Oμορφιτα,Turkish: Küçük Kaymaklı
- Ormidhia, Greek: Ορμήδεια
- Pachna, Greek: Πάχνα
- Paralimni, Greek: Παραλίμνι
- Polis, Greek: Polis, Turkish: Poli
- Pissouri, Greek: Πισσούρι
- Pyla, Greek: Πύλα, Turkish: Pile
- Rizokarpaso, Greek: Ριζοκάρπασο, Turkish: Dipkarpaz/Karpaz. Ancient name: Carpasia
- Strovolos, Greek: Στρόβολος
- Templos, Greek: Τέμπλος, Turkish: Zeytinlik
- Trikomo, Greek: Τρίκωμο, Turkish: İskele/Yeni İskele
- Trouli, Greek: Τρούλλοι
- Tseri Greek: Τσέρι
- Tymvou, Greek: Τύμβου, Turkish: Ercan. The airport is in Turkish referred to as Ercan Havaalani
- Xylotymvou Greek: Ξυλοτύμβου
- Vasilikos, Vasilikos
- Varosha, Greek: Βαρώσια, Turkish: Maraş (a ghost town. The southern half of Famagusta)
- Yeroskipou Greek: Γεροσκήπου
- Zodia Greek: Ζώδια
- Zygi Greek: Ζύγι
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